Skip to main content

CSEM — Constructing a Good, Sustainable Life (Narvaez)

Fake News Defined

For the purpose of this class:

Fake News A type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation, be it via the traditional news media or via social media, with the intent to mislead in order to gain financially or politically.

Strategies #1-#4

  • Check for previous work: Look around to see if someone else has already fact-checked the claim or provided a synthesis of research.
  • Go upstream to the source: Go “upstream” to the source of the claim. Most web content is not original. Get to the original source to understand the trustworthiness of the information.
  • Read laterally: Read laterally.[1] Once you get to the source of a claim, read what other people say about the source (publication, author, etc.). The truth is in the network.
  • Circle back: If you get lost, or hit dead ends, or find yourself going down an increasingly confusing rabbit hole, back up and start over knowing what you know now. You’re likely to take a more informed path with different search terms and better decisions.

Caulfield, M. (2017). Four Strategies. In Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers. Retrieved from https://webliteracy.pressbooks.com/chapter/four-strategies/

Learn how to reverse search in under 2 minutes

Caulfield, M. (2017, 5 January). How to Find an Eagle Attack. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRqiuFt-paQ

Allain, R. (2014, 3 October). The Physics of fake videos. Science. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/2014/10/physics-fake-videos/

Tips & Tricks

In Chrome:

  1. Google text search:
    1. a. highlight text;
    2. b. right click (control click on a Mac)
    3. c. choose option: search Google [for highlighted text]
    4. d. scan results [urls, not titles]
  2. Google reverse image search:
    1. a. hover cursor over photo
    2. b. right click (control click on a Mac)
    3. c. context menu pops up
    4. d. choose option: "Search Google for image"
  3. Search images in Twitter:
    1. a. just follow the links [usually the last part of a tweet, e.g, goo.gl/Abqchm]
  4. Filter by time and place:
    1. a. use local sources, e.g., local newspapers, local news broadcasts [place]
    2. b. click tools; use time dropdown; select "custom range" [time] for viral photos, 2009-2010 is a good place to start
  5. Use WHOIS for domain searches
    1. use WHOIS search box
    2. use command line: e.g., http://www.whois.com/whois/baltimoregazette.com
  6. Syntax to search what others say about a site: baltimoregazette.com -site:baltimoregazette.com
  7. Syntax for DuckDuckGo to search fact-checking sites-- key words:factcheck.org site:snopes.com site:politifact.com

More Google search shortcuts

Be a Google Expert

Refine your web search using these shortcuts adapted from https://support.google.com/websearch/answer/2466433

What do you want to do?

Shortcut

Sample Search

Find an exact match

“ “

“University of Notre Dame”

Exclude search terms

-

“CNN” -site:cnn.com

Include wildcards

*

"why * make the best pets"

Combine searches

OR

"cats OR dogs are the best"

Search within a site

site:

"cnn.com" site:wikipedia.org

Search within a domain

site:

Spanish lesson site:edu

Search for related sites

related:

related:nd.edu

Get details about a site

info:

info:cnn.com

See a cached version of a site

cache:

cache:library.nd.edu

Search within a range

..

“I own 1..10 cats”

Search for a file type

filetype:

South bend population filetype:pdf

Search social media

@

@google

Search hashtags

#

#goirish

Search for a price

$

laptop $200

Search within URLs

inurl:

best pets inurl:cats

Search in page titles

intitle:

best pets intitle:dogs

Search for words within a range

AROUND( )

tornado AROUND(3) central illinois

Advanced search: https://www.google.com/advanced_search

Advanced image search: https://www.google.com/advanced_image_search

Other fun Google search tools :

Google Scholar scholar.google.com

Google Books

books.google.com

Google News

news.google.com

Google Patents patents.google.com

Google Ngram books.google.com/ngrams

Google Trends

trends.google.com

Browser Plug-ins

B.S. Detector (Chrome, Firefox, Safari)

Data Selfie

Fake News Alert (Chrome)

This is Fake (Chrome, for Facebook feed)

Tools

DuckDuckGo the search engine that doesn't track you.

Google reverse image search

Internet Archive Wayback Machine

StackExchange

TinEye a reverse image search engine

WHOIS "is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource."

Wolfram Alpha a computational knowledge engine (allows weather checking from a particular date)

Youtube DataViewer  a tool to extract hidden data from videos hosted on YouTube

Bots

congress-edits a bot that tweets anonymous Wikipedia edits that are made from IP addresses in the US Congress.

Imposter Buster a Twitter bot that exposes racist trolls impersonating Jews and other minorities.