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The Cold War, Causes of



We connect people with knowledge over time and are committed to providing excellent service.


Print & Digital

The Hesburgh Libraries along with the Kresge Law Library provide access to a rich selection of resources to meet your information needs. 

This Guide

The resources listed in this guide have been selected for your specific course out of the vast ocean of resources for topics from Aardvark to Zydeco that are discoverable on the LIbraries's homepage using the OneSearch and similar "tabs." 


In addition to these resources we have subject librarians assigned to each subject taught at Notre Dame.  An up to date list can be found at  Please take advantage of their knowledge and experience navigating the deceptively simple world of information (i.e.,  Google much less Wikipedia will not answer all of your questions!).


The Libraries offer numerous services to make you research a bit easier.  For instance, we borrow materials (print and digital) from other libraries (ILL), page books for everyone and articles for grad students and faculty (DocDel), search for missing items, recall items from other users as needed, and provide free scanners (in the Hesburgh Library Circulation/Reference area).


Please feel free to contact me anytime for assistance using the Libraries services or locating library materials.  If I'm in my office and the door is open (It's open 95% of the time), I'm available. Come on in.  However, because I give library instruction sessions, participate in library and university committee , and attend events given my academic departments, it is always best to check we me before heading over either to the Hesburgh Library or to the Hesburgh Center on the chance that I will be in one of my offices.

Visible vs. Invisible Web


The visible web consists of all web pages accessible without using a password, a credit card or other authorization.

  • It is accessed by URL/IP address or by using a web search engine such as Google.
  • Web sites may consist of open and closed sections, e.g. news sites.  Recent news is freely available; often older news stories aren't.
  • Anyone who can pay for it can have a web page, e.g., all ND people can create a personal web page.
  • Therefore, accuracy, authority and reliability are often issues.
  • It is VERY easy to do a basic search in it using web search engines such as Google and usually get relevant but not necessarily reputable results.


The invisible web consists of web pages and web sites that can only be accessed with a password, credit card or special authorization.

  • It is generally not accessible simply by searching Google -- other than perhaps the locating the site's home page.
  • Examples include commercial sites such as news publications, scholarly databases and secure government agency sites.
  • The Hesburgh Libraries subscribe (pay for access) to thousands of databases costing several million dollars annually that are not accessible on the visible web.
  • The Hesburgh Libraries provide access via a "proxy" server (think automated "password") for those using the Libraries web site from campus.
  • These individual web sites (usually databases) are a bit more difficult to search than Google but with their more robust search capabilities can produce highly valuable, focused results.
  • The invisible web is unwittingly accessed by ND people everyday by using the Libraries website.