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5-Year Journal Impact Factor

Citations to articles from the most recent five full years, divided by the total number of articles from the most recent five full years. "How much is this journal being cited during the most recent five full years?"

Aggregate Cited Half Life

Indicates the turnover rate for a body of work.


Altmetrics go beyond normal citation metrics to include alternative impact measures including downloads, views, blogs and, tweets.  Altmetrics expands the community of comment beyond the limits of bibliometrics.

Article Influence

The Eigenfactor score divided by the number of articles published in journal.  "I know how impactful the journal as a whole is, but what about the average individual article in the journal?"

Article Level Metrics

Impact measures at the article level, e.g. number of citations to a specific article.

Author Identities

Codes that identify the works of an author as distinct from an author with the same or similar name.

Author Impact Factor

The impact of a specific author based on the number of citations over time.  h-index is an example of an author impact factor. See the Research Impact page for more information.

Author Metrics

Google provides its own calculations for an author's h index, including a number of variations based on it's indexed content.


In the context of impact factor, measures of citations at the journal and article level.

Cited Half-Life

"The cited half-life is the number of publication years from the current year which account for 50% of current citations received."  (Ladwig and Sommense)

Creative Commons License

A means to retain copyright while proactively granting permission to reuse the work under specific conditions such as attribution. See this website for more information on the various licenses available.


Similar to the 5-Year Journal Impact Factor, but weeds out journal self-citations.  It also, unlike the Journal Citation Reports impact factor, cuts across both the hard sciences and the social sciences.


Embargoes for articles is the length of time between when the article is first published and when it becomes available through channels other than the publisher. This could mean becoming open access through requirements such as the NIH public access mandate or being available through a content aggregator such as Academic Search Premier.  Embargoes for dissertations and thesis is the length of time between when the dissertation is accepted and when it is made available. Authors embargo their dissertations when they hope to publish a revised version as a book or as book chapters.

Fair Use

Specific exemptions to the exclusive rights of the copyright holder.  Fair Use (section 107) includes common academic activities such as the ability to review, criticize, quote, make a copy of an article for personal use.


Proposed by Egghe in 2006 to overcome a bias against highly cited papers inherent in the h-index. The g-index is the "highest number of papers of a scientist that received gg2 or more ciations" (Schreiber)


This metric is based on the articles published by a journal over 5 calendar years. h is the largest number of articles that have each been cited h times. A journal with an h5-index of 43 has published, within a 5-year period, 43 articles that each have 43 or more citations.


Proposed by J.E. Hirsch in 2005 the h-index is intended to serve as a proxy of the contribution of an individual researcher. The h index is calculated through a formula that considers the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. See this blog entry for more information on how to calculate it.


Introduced by Google Scholar in 2011 the i10-index measures an athors publications with at least 10 citations.

Immediacy Index

The average number of times a journal article is cited in its first year.  Used to compare journals publishing in emerging fields.

Impact Factor

A measure of often a journal or specific author is cited. The intent is to assign a number as a proxy for the contribution of a publication or researcher to the field.


In the context of copyright, using more of a copyright work than is allowed by law.

IPP-Impact per Publication

Also known as RIP (raw impact per publication), the IPP is used to calculate SNIP. IPP is number of current-year citations to papers from the previous 3 years, divided by the total number of papers in those 3 previous years.

Journal Cited Half-Life

For the current Journal Citation Reports year, the median age of journal articles cited.  "What is the duration of citation to articles in this journal?"

Journal Immediacy Index

Citations to articles from the current year, divided by the total number of articles from the current year.  "How much is this journal being cited during the current year?"

Journal Impact Factor

Citations to articles from the most recent two full years, divided by the total number of articles from the most recent two full years.  "How much is this journal being cited during the most recent two full years?" See Journal Citation Reports for more information.

Journal Metrics

Lists top publications based on their "five-year h-index and h-median metrics."


A license is a contract. Signing a license can mean you are giving your copyright to a publisher. 

Notre Dame Honor Code

 Notre Dame's Honor Code outlines the responsibilities of students and faculty for ethical conduct of teaching and research. The code forbids use of material, without attribution, whether or not it is copyrighted.

Open Access

The ability to read a publication freely without confronting a paywall.


Open Researcher and Contributor ID, a researcher identification system not tied to a specific vendor. The ORCID is intended to disambiguate author/researcher names across publishers and across all areas of contribution.

Orphan Works

Works still believed to be in copyright but there is no way to identify or contact the copyright owner, e.g. photographs of studio no longer in business.


Presenting someone else's work, ideas or concepts as your own.  Plagiarism is an ethical concept.  Copyright violation is a legal concept.

Public Domain

Works no longer in copyright or never covered by copyright.


The author identification system supported by Thomson Reuters, now Clarivate Analytics.


When an article is withdrawn from a publication it is retracted. Articles may be retracted for a number of reasons including plagiarism; self plagiarism; flawed research methods; ethics issues (especially human subjects); or fraudulent data. Retraction Watch gives daily updates on known instances of retractions.

Rights of the copyright holder

The copyright law (17 U.S.Code Section 106) grants copyright holders the right to reproduce the work, prepare derivative works, distribute copies, perform and display perform the work. 


Referencing one's own publications. There is nothing wrong with citing one's own research but is not considered as meaningful as citations by others.


This metric doesn't consider all citations of equal weight; the prestige of the citing journal is taken into account.

SNIP-Source-Normalized Impact per Paper

SNIP weights citations based on the number of citations in a field. If there are fewer total citations in a research field, then citations are worth more in that field.

SPARC addendum

Publisher agreements may give authors some rights to reuse their works, the SPARC addendum is an addendum to the publisher agreement giving the authors specific additional rights to their works including the ability to make coies available for noncommercial use. 

Transformative Work

A fair use under copyright law. Use of a copyright work that changes the purpose and intent of the original work.

Work for hire

Works made in the normal course of employment such as the text of this LibGuide. When a work is created as part of your job your employer owns the copyright unless both parties have an agreement in place to allow you to retain the copyright.  Notre Dame's Intellectual Property Policy  describes the works where the University claims exclusive rights and where they waive the right.  In general if you write an article or a book the University allows you to keep the copyright but other intellectual property such as patents belong to Notre Dame.