As with secondary sources, all primary source documents found in the Notre Dame Archives should be cited responsibly by researchers if quoted, paraphrased, referenced or displayed. There are no universal citation guidelines in place for archival sources and format can vary depending on the style (MLA, APA, Chicago) preferences of your instructor, publisher, or discipline.
All citations should include the following information if known:
This information may be unknown or hidden to the untrained eye. Examine your source closely before omitting any information from your citation. Due to the unique manner in which archival collections are organized, it can be difficult to locate materials again if citations are not specific enough. Your citation should provide enough information that subsequent researchers will be able to retrace your steps and retrieve the exact item(s) cited.
Properly citing the seemingly unconventional items found in our collections can be tricky. We have provided citation examples as models researchers may wish to adopt. The citation examples below generally adhere to the Chicago Manual of Style. See the manual for more information and examples. Consult the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for guidance on how to apply other citation styles.
A letter with assigned box and folder numbers (14.228):
Name of the Sender to Name of the Recipient, Date, Name of Collection Box Number/Folder Number, Name of the Archive/Repository.
John Louis Deister to Rev. Andrew Morrissey, 2 July 1902, University of Notre Dame Early President’s Records (hereafter cited as UPEL) 94/11, UNDA.
Joseph F. Dohan to Rev. Andrew Morrissey, 3 July 1902, UPEL 94/11, UNDA.
A letter WITHOUT assigned box or folder numbers:
James V. Gibbons to James W. Frick, 27 July 1982, University of Notre Dame Vice President for University Relations (hereafter cited as URVP) box 4, "New York Stock Exchange Trading Post" folder, UNDA.
A printed item unlikely to be found at other institutions:
Title/Description, Date [Name of Collection Box Number/Folder Number, Name of the Archive/Repository].
Graduate Studies in History, University of Notre Dame (Fall 1981) [found in Notre Dame Printed Materials Collection (hereafter cited as PNDP) 40-Hi-1, UNDA].
A newspaper article (14.191):
Name of Author, “Title of Article,” Name of Publication, Date, [Name of Collection Box Number/Folder Number, Name of the Archive/Repository].
"Union-Management Talks Set at Notre Dame," South Bend Tribune, 1 April 1970 [found in University of Notre Dame Department of Information Services Records (hereafter cited as UDIS) 50/12, UNDA].
Other “unusual” items found in archival collections, including objects and photographs:
Title/Description, Date, Name of Collection Box Number/Folder Number, Name of the Archive/Repository.
Registration Book Entry for William J. Anderson, 5 September 1865, "Student Register 1857-73," p.67, Early Notre Dame Student, Class, and Financial Record books (hereafter cited as ULDG), UNDA.
"Nutting for President" Campaign Button, 1970, University of Notre Dame Artifacts Collection (hereafter cited as OAND), UNDA.
Photographic portrait of Ronald W. Haughton, GDIS 30/45, UNDA.
Archives of the University of Notre Dame (cited as UNDA).
Notre Dame Early Presidents' Records (UPEL).
Notre Dame Printed Materials Collection (PNDP).
Notre Dame Vice President for University Relations (URVP).
Unknown date (14.145):
If the publication date of a printed work cannot be ascertained, use the abbreviation n.d. in the publication details. A guessed-at date may either be substituted in brackets [1971?] or added (c.1971).
Unsigned newspaper articles (14.199):
If a bibliography entry should be needed, the title of the newspaper stands in place of the author.
Pamphlets and other items with unknown information (14.220):
Sufficient information should be given to identify a document, even when data on author and publisher may not fit the normal pattern.