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Arabic, Near Eastern, and Islamic Studies

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Dictionaries are most often collections of words in one or more specific languages, usually arranged in alphabetical order, providing information like word meanings, usage, etymology, and, when they contain more than one language, translations. Some dictionaries include information more commonly found in encyclopedias.  Encyclopedias are collections of information on terms, figures, eras, locations also arranged alphabetically, and, alongside definitions of terms, they also include more in-depth general information on a topic. Encyclopedias can be general or subject-specific.

Printed Reference Works in Hesburgh Library

English

Arabic

Online Arabic Dictionaries
Complete Arabic Dictionaries in PDF
Arabic Dialect Dictionaries
Arabic Thesauri

Persian

Online Dictionaries