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EALC 40411/40412 — Fourth-Year Chinese

Poli Sci and Peace Studies Librarian

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Mark Robison

Hesburgh Library
148 Hesburgh Library
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556

(574) 631-8901



Useful Expressions


  • 比方说, [sentence]: for example
  • 以 [noun] 为例: to take [noun] as an example
  • 拿 [noun] 来说/讲: to take [noun] as an example


  • 换句话说: in other words
  • 具体而言 or  具体地说: specifically speaking
  • (也)就是说: that is to say


  • 总而言之 or 总之:  in short
  • 简而言之 or 简言之: to put it briefly

Quoting [a source]

  • 指出: pointed out
  • 声称: claimed
  • 透露: revealed
  • 呼吁: called for
  • 强调指出: emphasized
  • 宣布: declared
  • 暗示: hinted
  • 遗责说: denounced
  • 表示: stated
  • 提议: proposed
  • 承认: admitted
  • 介绍: introduced
  • 重申: reiterated
  • 建议: suggested
  • 否认: denied
  • 补充说: added
  • 断言: stated with certainty
  • 警告说 or 告诫说: warned
  • 反驳说: rejected
  • 相信: believed
  • 认为: thought
  • 解释说: explained
  • 预料: predicted
  • 解释说: explained

*The above expressions are from

Yuan, Boping., and Kan, Qian. Developing writing skills in Chinese. Second edition.., Routledge, 2014.

(cf. Yuan, Boping, and Qian Kan. Developing writing skills in Chinese. Routledge, 2014.)