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Mahaffey Business Library Citation Style Guide

Mahaffey Business Library Citation Style Guide

General Format

For many business resources, the APA citation style does not provide specific examples for an accurate citation. Below we have provided examples representing the majority of databases made available at the Mahaffey Business Library for use in a reference list. If you are using material from a resource which is not listed, it is best to fit your resource as well as possible into the following format as per the APA 7th edition general format:

Author Last name, First initial. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Source Title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL. 

Note: Some resources may not have a publicly accessible database homepage URL. In the event a resources lacks this, it is ok to leave it off. Always remember the purpose of a citation is to be able to find it again. When in doubt, be sure to reach out to a business librarian or your professor!

For guidance on in-text citations, Penn State University Libraries maintains a guide outlining APA's in text style guidelines

Examples by Database

 

Article from a journal, magazine or newspaper:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. DOI if available. If unavailable Database name. Retrieved date.

Byrne, E. F. (2018). Making drones to kill civilians: Is it ethical? Journal of Business Ethics, 147(1), 81–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2950-4

 

Article from a wire feed:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of article. Database name. Retrieved date.

Oxford Analytica Daily Brief Service. (2018, June 11). KENYA: Corruption may undermine government credibility. ABI/INFORM Global. Retrieved June 23, 2020.

Special Note:

DOIs are found in the Abstract/Details tab when viewing an item in either ABI/INFORM database. If no DOI is listed, there is not one for that article, and the database information is located in the same section.

 

Ad$pender Data Set

Corporate Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data set. [Description of data set] [Format]. Publisher. Retrieved date from data source.

Kantar Media. (2020). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill. [Peloton Digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020 from Kantar Media Ad$pender Database.

Adforum Advertisement

Corporate Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of advertisement. [Format]. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

BCC Creative. (2020). BCC Tokyo 2020 - "Tokyo 2020 Olympics Trailer." [Advertisement]. Adforum. Retrieved July 1, 2020 from https://www.adforum.com/.

Market Research Report:

Author/Analyst Last Name, First Initial. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

McWilliams, A. (2019, November). Bionics: Technologies and global markets. BCC Research. Retrieved July 1, 2020 from https://www.bccresearch.com/.

Stock Prices:

Bloomberg. (2018). Stock prices for Apple, Inc. 1/1/2012–12/31/2017. https://www.bloomberg.com/.

 

Company Financials:

Two different ways to cite the same information:

Bloomberg. (2018). Return on capital for Hewlett Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/18. https://www.bloomberg.com/.

Bloomberg. (2018). Hewlett Packard: Return on capital, 12/31/90 to 9/30/18. https://www.bloomberg.com/.

SWOT Report/Analysis:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Company Name [SWOT analysis]. Database name. Retrieved date.

GlobalData. (2018, October). AT&T Inc. [SWOT analysis]. Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved June 27, 2020.

 

Company History:

Author. (Year). Company Name. Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved date.

International Directory of Company Histories. (2016). Facebook, Inc. Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved May 24, 2020.

 

Industry Overview:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Industry overview title. Database name. Retrieved date.

Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries. (2019). Electronic computer manufacturing. Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved March 13, 2019.

 
Source Citation:

"Tablet Computers." Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries. Ed. Lynn M. Pearce. Detroit: Gale, 2018. Business Insights: Essentials. Web. 27 September 2019.
http://bi.galegroup.com.proxy.library.nd.edu/essentials/industry/334111

Edited Citation:

Pearce, L. M. (2018). "Tablet computers." In Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries. Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved March 11, 2020.

 

Article from a journal, magazine or newspaper:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number if available), page range. DOI if available. If unavailable Database name. Retrieved date.

Munro, I., & Thanem, T. (2018). The ethics of affective leadership: Organizing good encounters without leaders. Business Ethics Quarterly, 28(1), 51–69. https://doi.org/10.1017/beq.2017.34

Harvard Business Review article:

Author Last name, First Initial. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume Number(Issue Number), Page range.

 

Ignatius, A. (2019). The tyranny of numbers. Harvard Business Review, 97(5), 12.

 

Country Profile:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Article or chapter title. Country profile title, page range. Database name. Retrieved date.

MarketLine. (2020, March). Marketline country profile: Poland. Poland country profile, 1-81. Business Source Complete. Retrieved October 2, 2020.

Company Financials:

Two different ways to cite the same information.

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Company Financial Section Title/Company name.Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

S&P Capital IQ. (2019). Total revenue FY2018 for Amazon.com Inc. S&P Capital IQ. Retrieved February 4, 2018 from https://www.capitaliq.com/.

S&P Capital IQ. (2019). Amazon.com Inc.: Total revenue FY2018. S&P Capital IQ. Retrieved February 4, 2018 from https://www.capitaliq.com/.

NetAdvantage Industry Survey.

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Industry Survey Title. Database name. Retrieved February 4, 2018 from database homepage URL.

Holt, D. (2016, March). Industry surveys: Electronic equipment & instruments. S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage. Retrieved February 4, 2018 from https://www.capitaliq.com/.

CEIC Data Set

Corporate Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data set.[Format]. Database name. Retrieved date.

National Bureau of Statistics. (2021). CN: Population. [Data set]. CEIC data. Retrieved June 11, 2020.

Charity Profile:

Corporate Author. (n.d.) Charity name and Location. Site name. Retrieved date from URL

Charity Navigator. (n.d.) Facing homelessness, Seattle, WA. Charity Navigator: Your guide to intelligent giving. Retrieved July 1, 2020 from https://www.charitynavigator.org/ein/462376967.

Charity Navigator Article

Author. (n.d.) Article title. Site name. Retrieved date from URL.

Charity Navigator. (n.d.) 10 Charities expanding in a hurry. Charity Navigator: Your guide to intelligent giving. Retrieved July 1, 2020 from https://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=topten.detail&listid=11

Dataset:

Author/Rightsholder. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

All China Marketing Research Co., Ltd. (2019). China city statistics, transportation, cities at prefectural level, 2012–2017 [Data set]. China Data Online. Retrieved April 12, 2020 from https://www.china-data-online.com/.

All China Marketing Research Co., Ltd. (2019). China Statistical Yearbook, Chapter 12: Environment protection, 12-3 water supply and water used, 2000–2005 [Data set]. China Data Online. Retrieved April 12, 2020 from https://www.china-data-online.com/.

CQ Researcher Report:

Author Last Name, First Initial. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

Premack, R. (2019, August 22). Marijuana legalization. CQ Researcher. Retrieved March 6, 2021 from https://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/

Data Axle Company Profile

Corporate Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Name of Company and location[Format]. Database name. Retrieved date.

Data Axle Reference Solutions. (2021). Starbucks, Anchorage, AK. [Company Profile]. Data Axle Reference Solutions. Retrieved July 2, 2020.

Data Axle Custom Search

Corporate Author. (n.d.). [Description of Search]. Database name. Retrieved date.

Data Axle Reference Solutions. (n.d.). [List of companies in Saint Joseph county, Indiana with 20 or more employees]. Data Axle Reference Solutions. Retrieved June 4, 2020.

 

 

Data-Planet Dataset:

DOIs may not be available for all sources. If no DOI is available, skip that portion of the citation.

Author/Rightsholder. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data set [Description of form]. Database name. Retrieved date. DOI

National Center for Education Statistics. (2018). Dropouts and Completions–State Level: Total Diploma Count | Grade: All Grades | Race: All Races | Gender: All Genders, 2006–2009 [Data set]. Data Planet™ Statistical Datasets: A SAGE Publishing Resource. Retrieved January 2, 2019. https://doi-org.proxy.library.nd.edu/10.6068/DP1663A7D1B321

Easy Analytic Software Inc. (EASI). (2018). Consumer Behavior–2017: Electronics | Socioeconomic Indicator: Cameras/Camcorders: 35mm Auto Focus Point & Shoot: Personally own, 2017 [Data set]. Data Planet™ Statistical Datasets: A SAGE Publishing Resource. Retrieved January 2, 2019. https://doi-org.proxy.library.nd.edu/10.6068/DP1663A7F3D432

Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Data Set

International Monetary Fund (IMF). (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data set.[Format]. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2021). Exports, FOB to partner countries: Advanced Economies [Data set]. Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS). Retrieved July 7, 2020 from https://data.imf.org/?sk=9D6028D4-F14A-464C-A2F2-59B2CD424B85.

Country Profile

Economic Intelligence Unit. (Current year). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date.

Economic Intelligence Unit. (2021). Country Report: Italy. Economic Intelligence Unit. Retrieved July 2, 2021.

Specific Report:

Corporate Author. (Date published). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date.

Economic Intelligence Unit. (2021, March). Financial Services Report: Italy. Economic Intelligence Unit. Retrieved July 2, 2021.

 

Article from a journal, magazine or newspaper:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number if available), page range. DOI if available. If unavailable Database name. Retrieved date..

Margin, E., and Nenovsky, N. (2021). Calculating without money: Theories of in-kind accounting of Alexander Chayanov, Otto Neurath and the early soviet experiences. European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 28(3), 457-477. https://doi-org.proxy.library.nd.edu/http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rejh20

Working paper.

Author, A. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of working paper. (Working paper number). Publisher. DOI if available. If unavailable, Database name. Retrieved date..

Ryan, E., & Whelan, K. (2021). A Model of QE, Reserve Demand and the Money Multiplier. (CEPR Discussion Papers: 15882). Centre for Economic Policy Research. Econlit. Retrieved July 21, 2021.

 

Factiva Company Report:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Company report title. Database name. Retrieved date.

FactSet Research Systems, Inc. (2019). Facebook, Inc. company report. Factiva. Retrieved January 3, 2021.

 

Stock Quote:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Company stock quote. Factiva. Retrieved date.

FactSet Research Systems, Inc. (2019, September 30). PPL stock quote. Factiva. Retrieved January 3, 2021.

Frost Perspective:

Corporate Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Report Title. Database Name. Retrieved Date.

Frost & Sullivan. (2019, September 30). Philips boldly embarks on the connected care journey. Frost & Sullivan Research Services. Retrieved December 10, 2019.

 

Industry Research Analysis:

Corporate Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Report Title. Database Name. Retrieved Date.

Frost & Sullivan. (2019, September 20). Global uninterruptible power supplies market, forecast to 2025. Frost & Sullivan Research Services. Retrieved December 10, 2019.

Nonprofit Financials:

Author. (Year). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL

GuideStar. (2019). South Bend Symphony Orchestra Association Inc.—Comprehensive trends financial analysis report. Guidestar Pro. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from https://www.guidestar.org/

 

Industry Research Report:

Author/Analyst Last name, First initial. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Industry market research report title.Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL

Molavi, J. (2019, September). Nuclear power in the US. IBISWorld. Retrieved September 23, 2020 from https://www.ibisworld.com/

 

Market Research Report:

Author/Editor. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL

Mind Commerce. (2019, September 16). 5G in IOT by connectivity, infrastructure, sensors, devices, (type, sector, verticals), and things 2019–2024. Marketresearch.com Academic. Retrieved December 18, 2020 from https://www.marketresearch.com/

 

Company Profile Information:

Special Note: Current company profiles are often updated in real time, lacking a publication date. Because of this, the date takes the format of (n.d.) to indicate no specific date.

Author/Editor. (Year, Month/Day. Profile major section title: profile subsection title.Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

Mergent, Inc. (n.d.). Apple Inc. company details: Company brief. Mergent Intellect. Retrieved September 12, 2018 from https://www.mergentintellect.com/

First Research Industry Profile:

Author/Editor. (Year, Month/Day). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

Dun & Bradstreet. (2021, May 24). Personal care products manufacturing. Dun & Bradstreet First Research. Retrieved June 2, 2021 from https://mergentonline.com/firstresearch

 

Company Profile Information:

Special Note: Current company profiles are often updated in real time, lacking a publication date. Because of this, the date takes the format of (n.d.) to indicate no specific date.

Author/Editor. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Profile major section title: profile subsection title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

Mergent, Inc. (n.d.). Walmart company details: Synopsis. Mergent Online. Retrieved January 9, 2020 from https://mergentonline.com/

Investext Analyst Report:

Author/Editor Last Name, First Initial/Affiliation. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Report title. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

Kee, T./Stock Traders Daily Research. (2019, October 10). Comprehensive technical and fundamental analysis for KO. Mergent Online. Retrieved November 2, 2019 from https://mergentonline.com/

 

Market Research Report:

Author/Editor/Analyst Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month/Day). Report title–Country–Month/Year. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

Topper, A. (2019, October). Restaurant decision making process–US–October 2019. Mintel Academic. Retrieved July 20, 2021 from https://www.mintel.com/

 

Company Financials:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Date). Title of financial segment.. Database name. Retrieved Date.

Morningstar. (2019). PPL Corp–Key ratios. Morningstar Investment Research Center. Retrieved July 12, 2021.

 

Morningstar Analysis:

Author/Analyst Last name, First initial. (Publication Year, Month/Date). Title.. Database name. Retrieved Date.

Bischof, A. (2019, August 6). PPL Corp–Morningstar analysis. Morningstar Investment Research Center. Retrieved July 12, 2021.

 
 

Article from journal, magazine, or newspaper:

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, volume number(issue number), page range. Database name. Retrieved Date.

Wisser, L. (2019, Fall). NOTE: Pandora’s algorithmic black box: The challenge of using academic risk assessments in sentencing. American Criminal Law Review, 56(4), 1811–1832. Nexis Uni. Retrieved January 3, 2020.

 

Country Risk Overview

Author/Editor. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title. Database name. Retrieved date.

The PRS Group, Inc. (2017). Afghanistan country analysis (economy). Nexis Uni. Retrieved from September 23, 2018..

 
 

Dataset:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data. Title of data set [Description of form]. Database name. Retrieved date.

International Energy Agency. (2011). Energy balances. Energy projections for IEA countries [Data set]. OECD iLibrary. Retrieved from April 12, 2021.

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data. Title of table [Description of form]. Database name. Retrieved date.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2011). CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. [Data set]. OECD iLibrary. Retrieved April 12, 2021.

 

Book:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of chapter or entry. Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. Database name. Retrieved date.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2011). Mortality from heart disease and stroke. Health at a glance 2011: OECD indicators (pp. 28-29), OECD Publishing. OECD iLibrary. Retrieved March 14, 2014.

 

Country Profile:

Author/Editor. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title–Type of report. Database name. Retrieved date.

Euromonitor International. (2016, January). Car rental (destination) in the US.–Country report. Passport. Retrieved August 6, 2017.

 

Company Report:

Euromonitor International. (2015, October 5). Microsoft Corp in toys and games (world)–Global company profile. Passport. Retrieved August 6, 2017.

 

Global Briefing:

Euromonitor International. (2015, September 2). Key global and regional trends shaping toys licensing–Briefing. Passport. Retrieved August 6, 2017.

 

Statistics:

Euromonitor International. (2017). Market size : Toys and games–Trade sources/national statistics. Passport. Retrieved August 6, 2017.

 

Analysis/Opinion:

Daujotas, G. (2012, May 29). Eastern Europe: The best performing traditional toys and games region in 2011–Opinion. Passport. Retrieved August 6, 2017.

 

Industry Survey:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Industry Survey Title. Database name. Retrieved February 4, 2018 from database homepage URL.

Holt, D. (2016, March). Industry surveys: Electronic equipment & instruments. S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage. Retrieved February 4, 2018 from https://www.capitaliq.com/.

 
 

SimplyAnalytics suggested citation format (examples):

SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics (2017). Census 2016 Current Estimates Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyMap database.

 

Edited versions of above:

EASI/MRI. (2017). Consumer expenditure data 2016. [Data set]. SimplyAnalytics. Retrieved November 13, 2019.

U.S. Census. (2016). Current estimates data 2016. [Data set]. SimplyAnalytics. Retrieved November 13, 2019.

EASI/MRI. (2017). Consumer expenditure data 2016 [Map]. SimplyAnalytics. Retrieved November 13, 2019.

 

Participation Data:

Data Source/Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data set [Data type]. Database name. Retrieved date.

National Sporting Goods Association. (2019). Martial arts/MMA/Tae kwon do: Participation by total age group (% of part.) 2014–2018 [Chart]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved May 22, 2021.

Consumer Expenditures:

NSGA. (2019). Exercise/fitness equipment: Market size—Total consumer exp., by type of equip. (in mil. of $) 2010–2017 [Chart]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved May 22, 2021.

Online Viewing Trends:

SBRnet. (2019). Online (computers/tablets/smartphones) game/event viewership, % ages 18–34, by major sport category 2012–2018 [Chart]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved May 22, 2021.

 

 

Data and Charts:

Data Source/Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data set [Format]. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

MSW-ARS Research/The Brand Strength Monitor. (2018, March). United States: Brand preferences for facial foundation from October 2017 to January 2018, by age [Chart]. Statista. Retrieved February 8, 2019 from https://www.statista.com/

 

Dossier or Report:

Sporting Intelligence. (2016). Global sports salaries survey 2016 [Report]. Statista. Retrieved February 8, 2019 from https://www.statista.com/

Statista. (2018). National Hockey League [Report]. Statista. Retrieved February 8, 2019 from https://www.statista.com/

 

Company Profile:

Corporate Author. (n.d.). Report title. [Format]. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

Thomas Publishing Company. (n.d.). Neslo Manufacturing. [Company profile]. Retrieved July 22, 2021 from https://www.thomasnet.com/

 

Dataset:

Author. (Publication Year, Month/Day). Title of data. Title of data set [Format]. Database name. Retrieved date from database homepage URL.

World Databank. (2019). India: Access to electricity 1960–2018 [Data set]. World Development Indicators. Retrieved March 19 2021 from https://databank.worldbank.org/home.aspx

World Databank. (2019). Vietnam: Average grace period on new external debt commitments (years) [Data set]. International Debt Statistics. Retrieved March 19 2021 from https://databank.worldbank.org/home.aspx