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History and Philosophy of Science

Overview of History and Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. 

Wikipedia, from "Philosophy of Science"


The specific field of the history of science is the study and explanation of the origin and transformation of the structures of scientific knowledge. The historian of science should render understandable the reality of scientific research.

Grmek, M. D. (2001). Définition du domaine propre de l’histoire des sciences et considérations sur ses rapports avec la philosophie des sciences. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 23(1), 5–12.

Related subjects include: Philosophy, Biology, Mathematics, Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics.

Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Dictionaries are most often collections of words in one or more specific languages, usually arranged in alphabetical order, providing information like word meanings, usage, etymology, and, when they contain more than one language, translations. Some dictionaries include information more commonly found in encyclopedias.  Encyclopedias are collections of information on terms, figures, eras, locations also arranged alphabetically, and, alongside definitions of terms, they also include more in-depth general information on a topic. Encyclopedias can be general or subject-specific.


Biography provides a description of a person's life,  detailing the basic facts like birth and death, education, family background, etc. but also portraying the individual subject's experience of those life events.