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History, Western Europe


Example of French handwriting

Palaeography (or Paleography) is the study and analysis of handwriting in order to read old texts with accuracy and fluency. It focuses on studying letter forms and conventions used, such as abbreviations. In addition, palaeography also involves dating manuscripts and identifying the location of, called ‘localizing’, the writing used.

General Reference Books

Online Tutorial and Resources



Courses at Notre Dame

Subject Specialists at Notre Dame

Hesburgh Library Subject Specialists

Subject specialists at the Hesburgh Librarians are available to help you in the following areas:

  Latin Greek German
Aedin Clements
Irish Studies Librarian
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Erika Hosselkus
Latin American Collections Curator and Iberian Studies Librarian
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David Gura
Curator, Ancient and Medieval Manuscripts
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Julia Schneider
Medieval Studies Librarian
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Julie Tanaka
Curator, Special Collections
Western European History Librarian
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