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History, Western Europe


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This Western European history guide provides the most relevant resources regarding topics related to the history, culture, and politics of modern Western Europe, especially with regard to major geographic areas of teaching and research at Notre Dame, including Britain, France, Germany/Austria, Italy, and Ireland. These resources cross disciplines to include such areas as gender, literature, film, film theory, archival theory, and religion to address the expanding research approaches and perspectives. 

Related subjects include: Byzantine StudiesCatholic StudiesClassicsGender StudiesGlobal AffairsHistory and Philosophy of ScienceHistory: United States and CanadaIrish StudiesLatin American StudiesMedieval StudiesPeace StudiesTheology and Religion.

For a primer on general research, review the Starting Your Research guide.

Scholarly Resources

Article Databases


Theses and Dissertations

United States


Beyond Europe



  • Armitage, David, ed. Theories of Empire, 1450-1800. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

  • Armitage, David and Michael J. Braddick, eds. The British Atlantic World, 1500-1800. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

  • Butlin, R. A. Geographies of Empire: European Empires and Colonies, c. 1880-1960. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

  • Reinhard, Wolfgang and Kate Sturge. A Short History of Colonialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011.



  • Ahluwalia, Pa, Bill Ashcroft, and Roger Knight, eds. White and Deadly: Sugar and Colonialism. Commack: Nova Science Publishers, 1999.

  • Boahen, A. Adu. African Perspectives on Colonialism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

  • Boucher, Philip P. The Shaping of the French Colonial Empire: A Bio-Bibliography of the Careers of Richelieu, Fouquet, and Colbert. New York: Garland, 1985.

  • Canny, Nicholas and Anthony Pagden, eds. Colonial Identity in the Atlantic World, 1500-1800. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

  • Goto, Kenichi. Tensions of Empire: Japan and Southeast Asia in the Colonial and Post Colonial World. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2003.

  • Howe, Stephen. Ireland and Empire: Colonial Legacies in Irish History and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

  • Maddox, Gregory and Timothy K. Welliver. Articles on Colonialism and Nationalism in Africa. 4 vols. Colonialism and Nationalism in Africa. New York: Garland, 1993.

  • Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

  • Osterhammel, Jürgen. Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview. Trans. Shelley L. Frisch. Princeton: M. Wiener, 1997.

  • Price, Richard. Making Empire: Colonial Encounters and the Creation of Imperial Rule in Nineteenth-Century Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

  • Sandiford, Keith A. The Cultural Politics of Sugar: Caribbean Slavery and Narratives of Colonialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

  • Short, John Phillip. Magic Lantern Empire: Colonialism and Society in Germany. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012.

  • Vansina, Jan. Being Colonized The Kuba Experience in Rural Congo, 1880-1960. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2010.


Colonial Literature

  • Azim, Firdous. The Colonial Rise of the Novel. London: Routledge, 1993.

  • Bongie, Chris. Exotic Memories: Literature, Colonialism, and the Fin De Siècle. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.

  • Delmas, Adrien, and Nigel Penn. Written Culture in a Colonial Context: Africa and the Americas, 1500-1900. Cape Town: UCT Press, 2011.

  • Hogan, Patrick Colm. Colonialism and Cultural Identity: Crises of Tradition in the Anglophone Literatures of India, Africa, and the Caribbean. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000.

  • Petersen, Kirsten Holst and Anna Rutherford. A Double Colonization: Colonial and Post-Colonial Women’s Writing. Mundelstrup: Dangaroo Press, 1986.

  • Sharpe, Jenny. Allegories of Empire: The Figure of Woman in the Colonial Text. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

  • Spurr, David. The Rhetoric of Empire: Colonial Discourse in Journalism, Travel Writing, and Imperial Administration. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993.


Empire and Imperialism

  • Bessel, Richard, Nicholas Guyatt, and Jane Rendall. War, Empire and Slavery, 1770-1830. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

  • Burbank, Jane, and Frederick Cooper. Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

  • Das, Santanu. Race, Empire and First World War Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

  • Karsh, Efraim. Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.

  • Mommsen, Wolfgang J. Theories of Imperialism. New York: Random House, 1980.

  • Pagden, Anthony. Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c.1500-c.1800. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

  • Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Knopf, 1993.

  • Tarling, Nicholas. Imperialism in Southeast Asia “a Fleeting, Passing Phase”. London: Routledge, 2003.

  • Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

  • Andrews, Kenneth R. Trade, Plunder, and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

  • Bentley, Jerry H. Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

  • Burnard, Trevor. “Empire Matters? The Historiography of Imperialism in Early America, 1492-1830.” History of European Ideas 33 (2007): 87-107.

  • Chaudhuri, K. N. Asia before Europe: Economy and Civilisation of the Indian Ocean from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

  • Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

  • Daniels, Christine and Michael V. Kennedy. Negotiated Empires: Centers and Peripheries in the Americas, 1500-1820. New York: Routledge, 2002.

  • Diamond, Jared M. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.

  • Elliott, John H. The Old World and the New, 1492-1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

  • Greenblatt, Stephen Jay. Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

  • Johnson, Christine R. The German Discovery of the World: Renaissance Encounters with the Strange and Marvelous. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008.

  • Pagden, Anthony. European Encounters with the New World: From Renaissance to Romanticism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

  • Sandberg, Brian. “Beyond Encounters: Religion, Ethnicity, and Violence in the Early Modern Atlantic World, 1492-1700.” Journal of World History 17 (2006): 1-25.

  • Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700: A Political and Economic History. London: Longman, 1993. Todorov, Tzvetan.

  • The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: Harper and Row, 1984.


  • Alvarez, Alex. Governments, Citizens, and Genocide: A Comparative and Interdisciplinary Approach. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

  • Baum, Steven K. The Psychology of Genocide: Perpetrators, Bystanders, and Rescuers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

  • Frey, Robert Seitz. The Genocidal Temptation: Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Rwanda, and Beyond. Dallas: University Press of America, 2004.

  • Gellately, Robert and Ben Kiernan. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

  • Jacobs, Steven L. Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009.

  • Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. London: Routledge, 2006.

  • Jones, Adam. Gendercide and Genocide. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004.

  • Journal of Genocide Research. Basingstoke, UK: Carfax Pub., 1999.

  • Kiernan, Ben. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

  • Lorey, David E. and William H. Beezley. Genocide, Collective Violence, and Popular Memory: The Politics of Remembrance in the Twentieth Century. Wilmington, Del: SR Books, 2002.

  • Totten, Samuel, William S. Parsons, and Israel W. Charny. Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views. New York: Garland Pub, 1997.

  • Valentino, Benjamin A. Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004.



  • Bloxham, Donald. The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

  • Gevorgyan, Satenik, Ruben Avagyan, and Rafayel Harutyunyan. The Armenian Genocide Internet Report and Analysis on the Occasion of the 90th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. [Yerevan, Republic of Armenia?]: DAR Publishing House, 2005.

  • Gust, Wolfgang and Sigrid Gust, et al. The Armenian Genocide: Documents from State and Private Archives.

  • Kévorkian, Raymond H. The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History. London: I. B. Tauris, 2011

  • Melson, Robert. Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992

  • Sarafian, Ara. United States Official Records on the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1917. Princeton: Gomidas Institute, 2004.



  • Moses, A. Dirk. Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History. New York: Berghahn Books, 2005.

  • Reynolds, Henry. An Indelible Stain?: The Question of Genocide in Australia’s History. Ringwood: Viking, 2001.

  • Tatz, Colin.Genocide in Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1999.



  • Beljo, Ante. Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing in Northwestern Bosnia: Bosnia-Herzegovina. Zagreb: Croatian Information Centre, 1993.

  • Bringa, Tone Averted Gaze: Genocide in Bosnia-Herzogovina, 1992-1995. In Alexander Laban Hinton, Annihilating Difference. University of California Press, 2002. Pp. 194-225.

  • Sells, Michael Anthony. The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996



  • Cook, Susan E. Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda: New Perspectives. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2006.

  • Hinton, Alexander Laban. Why Did They Kill?: Cambodia in the Shadow of Genocide. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

  • Kiernan, Ben. Genocide and Resistance in Southeast Asia: Documentation, Denial and Justice in Cambodia & East Timor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2008.

  • Kiernan, Ben. The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-1979. 3rd rev. ed. New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

  • Pol Pot. Genocide in Cambodia: Documents from the Trial of Pol Pot and Ieng Sary. Ed. Howard J. De Nike, John B. Quigley, and Kenneth J. Robinson. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Cambodian Geographic Database (Contain data on Cambodia’s 13,000 villages, sites target in the U.S. bombings from 1965 to 1975, prisons run by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979, 309 mass grave sites, and post-1979 memorials to victims of the Khmer Riouge.)



  • Daly, M. W. Darfur’s Sorrow: A History of Destruction and Genocide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

  • De Waal, Alexander. Famine That Kills: Darfur, Sudan, 1984-1985. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

  • De Waal, Alexander. War in Darfur and the Search for Peace. [Cambridge, MA]: Global Equity Initiative, Harvard University, 2007.

  • Jeffries, William R. The Darfur Crisis. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2008.

  • Prunier, Gérard. Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

  • Reeves, Eric and Michael Brassard. A Long Day’s Dying: Critical Moments in the Darfur Genocide. Toronto: Key Pub. House, 2007.

  • Salih, Mohamed Abdel Rahim M., Nick Grono, and Juan E. Méndez. Explaining Darfur: Four Lectures on the Ongoing Genocide. Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA, 2006.

  • Steidle, Brian and Gretchen Steidle Wallace. The Devil Came on Horseback: Bearing Witness to the Genocide in Darfur. New York: Public Affairs, 2007.

Congressional Research Service Reports (full text) [Click on the month under the appropriate year and scroll down to the report and click on the title to access the pdf file]

  • International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues (July 22, 2011).

  • Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement (June 15, 2011).


U.S. Government Accountability Office Reports


East Timor

  • Jardine, Matthew. East Timor: Genocide in Paradise. Monroe, ME: Odonian Press, 1999.

  • Kohen, Arnold S. and John Taylor. An Act of Genocide: Indonesia’s Invasion of East Timor. London: TAPOL, 1979.

  • Kiernan, Ben. Genocide and Resistance in Southeast Asia: Documentation, Denial and Justice in Cambodia and East Timor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2008.

  • Robinson, Geoffrey. “If You Leave Us Here, We Will Die”: How Genocide Was Stopped in East Timor. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.



  • Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico (Guatemala) and Etelle Higonnet. Quiet Genocide: Guatemala 1981-1983. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2009.

  • Grandin, Greg. The Blood of Guatemala: A History of Race and Nation. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.

  • Melville, Thomas. Through a Glass Darkly: The U.S. Holocaust in Central America. [Philadelphia]: Xlibris, 2005.

  • Wilkinson, Daniel. Silence on the Mountain: Stories of Terror, Betrayal, and Forgetting in Guatemala. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.



  • Sarkin-Hughes, Jeremy. Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims Under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2009.

  • Sarkin, Jeremy. Germany’s Genocide of the Herero Kaiser Wilhem II, His General, His Settlers, His Soldiers. Rochester: James Currey, 2011.

  • Zimmerer, Jürgen and Joachim Zeller. Genocide in German South-West Africa: The Colonial War (1904-1908) in Namibia and Its Aftermath. Monmouth, Wales: Merlin Press, 2008.


The Holocaust

  • Bartov, Omer. The Holocaust: Origins, Implementation, Aftermath. London: Routledge, 2000.

  • Blatman, Daniel. The Death Marches: The Final Phase of Nazi Genocide. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

  • Burleigh, Michael. Ethics and Extermination: Reflections on Nazi Genocide. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

  • Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. 3rd ed. 3 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.


Rwanda and Burundi

  • Barnett, Michael N. Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.

  • Cook, Susan E. Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda: New Perspectives. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2006.


  • Daley, Patricia. Gender & Genocide in Burundi: The Search for Spaces of Peace in the Great Lakes Region. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

  • Dallaire, Roméo and Brent Beardsley. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005.

  • Kuperman, Alan J. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2001.

  • Lemarchand, René. Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide. [Washington, D.C.]: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996.

  • Nyankanzi, Edward L. Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi. Rochester, VT: Schenkman Books, 1998.

  • Prunier, Gérard. Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

  • Straus, Scott. The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006.


Web Resources: Bibliographies


Primary Sources (Under Construction)


  • Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. and extended ed. London: Verso, 2006.

  • Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. 2nd ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.

  • Grosby, Steven Elliott. Nationalism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

  • Herb, Guntram Henrik and David H. Kaplan. Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008.

  • Smith, Anthony D. National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1991.

  • Zimmer, Oliver. Nationalism in Europe, 1890-1940. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.


Debates concerning Nationalism

  • Avineri, Shlomo and Avner De-Shalit. Communitarianism and Individualism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

  • Barry, Brian. Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

  • Gans, Chaim. The Limits of Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

  • Hardin, Russell. One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

  • Hobsbawm, E.J. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

  • Roshwald, Aviel. The Endurance of Nationalism: Ancient Roots and Modern Dilemmas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

  • Tamir, Yael. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

  • Yuval-Davis, Nira. Gender and Nation. London: Sage Publications, 1997.


Origins of Nations and Nationalism

  • Baycroft, Timothy and Mark Hewitson. What Is a Nation? Europe 1789-1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

  • Geary, Patrick J. The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

  • Grosby, Steven Elliott and Athena S. Leoussi. Nationalism and Ethnosymbolism History, Culture and Ethnicity in the Formation of Nations. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.

  • Hastings, Adrian. The Construction of Nationhood Ethnicity, Religion, and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

  • Marx, Anthony W. Faith in Nation: Exclusionary Origins of Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

  • Smith, Anthony D. The Cultural Foundations of Nations: Hierarchy, Covenant and Republic. Malden: Blackwell, 2008.

  • Smith, Anthony D. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1987.


Regional Studies

  • Bell, David Avrom. The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680-1800. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

  • Bilenʹkyĭ, Serhiĭ. Romantic Nationalism in Eastern Europe: Russian, Polish, and Ukrainian Political Imaginations. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012.

  • Cañizares-Esguerra, Jorge. Nature, Empire, and Nation: Explorations of the History of Science in the Iberian World. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.

  • Jenkins, Brian. Irish Nationalism and the British State From Repeal to Revolutionary Nationalism. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2006.

  • Kidd, Colin. British Identities Before Nationalism Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

  • Wingfield, Nancy M. Creating the Other: Ethnic Conflict and Nationalism in Habsburg Central Europe. New York: Berghahn Books, 2003.


Topical Studies

  • Baycroft, Timothy and David M. Hopkin. Folklore and Nationalism in Europe During the Long Nineteenth Century. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

  • Buchanan, Allen E. and Margaret Moore. States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

  • Featherstone, Mike. Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization, and Modernity: A Theory, Culture and Society Special Issue. London: Sage Publications, 1990.

  • Ginderachter, Maarten Van and Marnix Beyen. Nationhood from Below. Europe in the Long Nineteenth Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.



  • Nations and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995-.

  • National Identities. Abingdon: Carfax International Publishers, 1999-.

  • Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism. London: Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism, 2001-.

Online Bibliographic Resources


  • Briggs, Robin. Early Modern France, 1560-1715. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

  • Doyle, William. France and the Age of Revolution Regimes Old and New from Louis XIV to Napoleon Bonaparte. London: I B Tauris & Co Ltd, 2013.

  • Doyle, William. Old Regime France, 1648-1788. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

  • Furet, François. Revolutionary France, 1770-1880. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

  • Lefebvre, Georges. The French Revolution. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1962.

  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The Ancien Régime: A History of France, 1610-1774.Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

  • Roche, Daniel. France in the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

  • Tocqueville, Alexis de. The Old Régime and the French Revolution. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955.


Culture and Society

  • Cassirer, Ernst. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955.

  • Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991.

  • Crow, Thomas E. Painters and Public Life in Eighteenth-Century Paris. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

  • Darnton, Robert. The Literary Underground of the Old Regime. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.

  • Gay, Peter. The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. New York: Knopf, 1966.

  • Goodman, Dena. The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

  • Gordon, Daniel. Citizens Without Sovereignty: Equality and Sociability in French Thought, 1670-1789. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

  • Jones, Peter M. The Peasantry in the French Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

  • Pardailhé-Galabrun, Annik. The Birth of Intimacy: Privacy and Domestic Life in Early Modern Paris. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

  • Roche, Daniel. The People of Paris: An Essay in Popular Culture in the 18th Century. Leamington Spa: Berg, 1987.

  • Sewell, William Hamilton. Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from the Old Regime to 1848. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.



  • Bosher, J. F. French Finances 1770-1795: From Business to Bureaucracy. Cambridge: University Press, 1970.

  • Goubert, Pierre. The French Peasantry in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The Peasants of Languedoc. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974.



  • Aston, Nigel. Religion and Revolution in France, 1780-1804. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2000.

  • McManners, John. Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

  • Shusterman, Noah. Religion and the Politics of Time: Holidays in France from Louis XIV Through Napoleon. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2010

  • Van Kley, Dale K. The Religious Origins of the French Revolution: From Calvin to the Civil Constitution, 1560-1791. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.


Revolution and French Culture

  • Baker, Keith Michael. Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

  • Baker, Keith Michael, Colin Lucas, François Furet, and Mona Ozouf. The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture. 4 vols. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1987-1994.

  • Edelstein, Dan. The Terror of Natural Right: Republicanism, the Cult of Nature, and the French Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

  • Hesse, Carla Alison. Publishing and Cultural Politics in Revolutionary Paris, 1789-1810. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

  • Hunt, Lynn. Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.


The State and Politics

  • Beik, William. Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France: State Power and Provincial Aristocracy in Languedoc. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

  • Campbell, Peter Robert. Power and Politics in Old Regime France: 1720-1745. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1996.

  • Collins, James B. The State in Early Modern France. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

  • Hardman, John. French Politics, 1774-1789: From the Accession of Louis XVI to the Fall of the Bastille. London: Longman, 1995.

  • Mousnier, Roland. The Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 1598-1789. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979-84.

  • Sturdy, D. J. Louis XIV. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

  • Wolf, John B. Louis XIV. New York: Norton, 1968.


Online Bibliographic Resources

The Demise of the Weimar Republic

  • Feldman, Gerald D. The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 1914-1924. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

  • James, Harold. The German Slump: Politics and Economics, 1924-1936. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

  • Nicholls, Anthony James. Weimar and the Rise of Hitler. 4th ed. Houndmills: Macmillan Press, 2000.

  • Sneeringer, Julia. Winning Women’s Votes: Propaganda and Politics in Weimar Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2002.

  • Turner, Henry Ashby. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996.


Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP)

  • Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.

  • Hamann, Brigitte. Hitler’s Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

  • Jones, Larry Eugene. German Liberalism and the Dissolution of the Weimar Party System, 1918-1933. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

  • Kershaw, Ian. Hitler. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.


  • Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939. New York: Penguin Press, 2005.

  • Hayes, Peter. Industry and Ideology: IG Farben in the Nazi Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

  • Helmreich, Ernst Christian. The German Churches Under Hitler: Background, Struggle and Epilogue. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1980.

  • Leitz, Christian. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War. London: Routledge, 2004.

  • Mason, Timothy W., and Jane Caplan. Social Policy in the Third Reich: The Working Class and the National Community. Providence: Berg, 1993.

  • Overy, R. J. War and Economy in the Third Reich. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

  • Schoenbaum, David. Hitler’s Social Revolution; Class and Status in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939. Garden City: Doubleday, 1966.

  • Shore, Zachary. What Hitler Knew: The Battle for Information in Nazi Foreign Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

  • Tooze, J. Adam. The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. New York: Viking, 2007.

  • Watt, Donald Cameron. How War Came: The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938-1939. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.

  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. The Foreign Policy of Hitler’s Germany: Starting World War II, 1937-1939. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.


The Holocaust

  • Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. 2nd ed. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009.

  • Bloxham, Donald. Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

  • Chamberlin, Brewster S., Marcia Feldman, and Robert H. Abzug. The Liberation of the Nazi Concentration Camps 1945: Eyewitness Accounts of the Liberators. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1987.

  • Goodell, Stephen, Kevin A. Mahoney, and Sybil Milton. 1945: The Year of Liberation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1995.

  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. Rev. ed. 3 vols. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985.

  • Mikhman, Dan. Holocaust Historiography: A Jewish Perspective: Conceptualizations, Terminology, Approaches, and Fundamental Issues. London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2003.

  • Sofsky, Wolfgang. The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

  • Stone, Dan. The Historiography of the Holocaust. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

  • Taylor, Telford. The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir. New York: Knopf, 1992.


Culture and Society in the Third Reich

  • Adam, Peter. Art of the Third Reich. New York: H.N Abrams, 1992.

  • Baird, Jay W. Hitler’s War Poets: Literature and Politics in the Third Reich. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

  • Bergmeier, H. J. P. and Rainer E. Lotz. Hitler’s Airwaves: The Inside Story of Nazi Radio Broadcasting and Propaganda Swing. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

  • Boswell, Matthew. Holocaust Impiety in Literature, Popular Music and Film. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

  • Currid, Brian. A National Acoustics Music and Mass Publicity in Weimar and Nazi Germany. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.

  • Etlin, Richard A. Art, Culture, and Media Under the Third Reich. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

  • Karina, Lilian and Marion Kant. Hitler’s Dancers: German Modern Dance and the Third Reich. New York: Berghahn Books, 2003.

  • Maier-Katkin, Birgit. Silence and Acts of Memory: A Postwar Discourse on Literature, History, Anna Seghers, and Women in the Third Reich. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2007.

  • Petropoulos, Jonathan. The Faustian Bargain: The Art World in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

  • Schmitz, Helmut. German Culture and the Uncomfortable Past: Representations of National Socialism in Contemporary Germanic Literature. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.

  • Schoeps, Karl-Heinz. Literature and Film in the Third Reich. Rochester: Camden House, 2004.

  • Stibbe, Matthew. Women in the Third Reich. London: Arnold, 2003.


Online Bibliographic Resources


Primary Sources


  • Brigden, Susan. New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485-1603. New York: Viking, 2001.

  • Bucholz, Robert and Newton Key. Early Modern England, 1485-1714. A Narrative History. 2nd ed. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

  • Guy, John. Tudor England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

  • Lockyer, Roger. Tudor and Stuart Britain, 1485-1714. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2005.

  • Smith, Alan G. R. The Emergence of a Nation State: The Commonwealth of England, 1529-1660. 2nd ed. London: Longman, 1997.

  • Williams, Penry. The Later Tudors: England 1547-1603. Oxford: Oxford, 1998.


Wars of the Roses

  • Carpenter, Christine. The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c. 1437-1509. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

  • Gillingham, John. The Wars of the Roses. New ed. London: Phoenix, 2001.

  • Goodman, Anthony. The Wars of the Roses: Military Activity and English Society, 1452-97. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2003.

  • Hicks, M. A. The Wars of the Roses. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

  • Storey, R. L. The End of the House of Lancaster. Rev. 2nd ed. Gloucester: Sutton, 1999.



  • Alford, Stephen. Burghley: William Cecil at the Court of Elizabeth I. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.


  • Bernard, G. W. Power and Politics in Tudor England: Essays. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.


  • Brennan, Gillian E. Patriotism, Power, and Print: National Consciousness in Tudor England. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2003.


  • Coleman, Christopher. Revolution Reassessed: Revisions in the History of Tudor Government and Administration. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.


  • Collinson, Patrick. Richard Bancroft and Elizabethan Anti-Puritanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.


  • Elton, Geoffrey Rudolph. The Tudor Constitution: Documents and Commentary. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.


  • Elton, Geoffrey Rudolph. The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry 8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.


  • Graves, Michael A. R. Early Tudor Parliaments, 1485-1558. Harlow, Essex, England: Longman, 1990.


  • Guy, J. A. The Tudor Monarchy. London: Arnold, 1997.


  • Hammer, Paul E. J. The Polarisation of Elizabethan Politics: The Political Career of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, 1585-1597. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.


  • Hoak, Dale Eugene. Tudor Political Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.


  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy, and Piety. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.



Religion and Reformation

  • Brown, Sylvia Monica. Women, Gender, and Radical Religion in Early Modern Europe. Leiden: Brill, 2007.


  • Dickens, Arthur Geoffrey. The English Reformation. 2nd ed. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.


  • Duffy, Eamon. Fires of Faith: Catholic England under Mary Tudor. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.


  • Duffy, Eamon. The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, C.1400-C.1580. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.


  • Haigh, Christopher. The English Reformation Revised. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.


  • Heal, Felicity. Reformation in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.


  • Jones, Norman L. The English Reformation: Religion and Cultural Adaptation. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.


  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. Reformation: Europe’s House Divided, 1490-1700. London: Allen Lane, 2003.


  • Peters, Christine. Patterns of Piety: Women, Gender, and Religion in Late Medieval and Reformation England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


  • Scarisbrick, J. J. The Reformation and the English People. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.


  • Shagan, Ethan H. Popular Politics and the English Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


  • Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Scribner, 1971.


  • Walsham, Alexandra. The Reformation of the Landscape: Religion, Identity, and Memory in Early Modern Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.


  • Wooding, Lucy E. C. Rethinking Catholicism in Reformation England. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.



Art and Culture

  • Fox, Adam. Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500-1700. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.

  • King, John N. Tudor Royal Iconography: Literature and Art in an Age of Religious Crisis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

  • Peltonen, Markku. Classical Humanism and Republicanism in English Political Thought, 1570-1640. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.


  • Pincombe, Michael. Elizabethan Humanism: Literature and Learning in the Later Sixteenth Century. London: Longman, 2001.


  • Sharpe, Kevin and Steven N. Zwicker. Reading, Society, and Politics in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


  • Thurley, Simon. The Royal Palaces of Tudor England: Architecture and Court Life, 1460-1547. New Haven: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 1993.


  • Tudor Symposium and Michael Pincombe. The Anatomy of Tudor Literature: Proceedings of the First International Conference of the Tudor Symposium (1998). Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.


  • Woolfson, Jonathan. Reassessing Tudor Humanism. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.



  • Asch, Ronald G. Nobilities in Transition, 1550-1700: Courtiers and Rebels in Britain and Europe. London: Arnold, 2003.

  • Coward, Barry and Barry Coward. Social Change and Continuity: England 1550-1750. Rev. ed. London: Longman, 1997.


  • Dyer, Christopher. An Age of Transition? Economy and Society in England in the Later Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

  • Gaskill, Malcolm. Crime and Mentalities in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

  • Kesselring, K. J. Mercy and Authority in the Tudor State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

  • Levin, Carole and R. O. Bucholz. Queens and Power in Medieval and Early Modern England. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009.

  • Slack, Paul. The English Poor Law, 1531-1782. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

  • Ward, Joseph Patrick. Violence, Politics, and Gender in Early Modern England. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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